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Wednesday, 10 August 2022

Monkeypox Vaccine: All You Need To Know

  Monkeypox Vaccine: All You Need To Know




Introduction

As monkeypox is spreading rapidly around the globe, the World Health Organisation has announced it a Global Health Emergency. While WHO has even maintained that the situation is unlikely to escalate into a pandemic, there are more than 16,000 confirmed cases in about 75 countries across the globe. The India has recorded 4 cases of monkeypox too. 


Monkeypox shows symptoms same to smallpox; however, less severe. Primarily happening in tropical rain forests of Africa, the disease is spreading because of  international travel. The self-limiting disease lasts for about two -four  weeks and the fatality ratio is about 3-6%.


Vaccines are the best way to build the body’s defences against any unknown illness or pathogen. Read ahead to know everything about monkeypox vaccines – the availability and effectiveness. 


Vaccines

Since monkeypox is same to smallpox, the same vaccine has been clinically proven to be about 85% effective in detaining monkeypox. If you have got the smallpox vaccination, the infection might be milder. There is no particular monkeypox vaccine available at the moment in India.


Globally available vaccines

  • The real smallpox virus is not readily available to the general public in several countries since the eradication of the disease.
  • Recently , there are two vaccines licensed by the US FDA. The JYNNEOS or the a Imvamune Imvanex and the ACAM2000. There is a limited supply of the JYNNEOS and the ACAM2000 is not advised for people with comorbidities, a weak immune system, pre-existing skin conditions such as eczema and atopic dermatitis and pregnant people. 
  • JYNNEOS includes live vaccinia virus and it is a 2-dose vaccine; the second dose is given at a gap of 28 days.
  • There is not a lot of data that is obtainable on the effectiveness of these vaccines. 
  • Both the vaccines are 2 -dose.
  • Even after taking the vaccine, ignore close contact with someone who has contracted the virus.
  • Since there is a low supply of the vaccine in the United States currently, only people who are at risk of contracting the virus are getting vaccinated.

Vaccine availability in India

  • Aadar Poonawalla from Serum Institute of the India has said that they are in contact with a Danish smallpox vaccine manufacturer to procure a small batch in case of a sudden rise in cases.
  • Serum Institute is even considering developing a new vaccine. This vaccine will be improved in partnership with Novavax, SII’s global partner.
  • Recently , it is not possible to go for mass vaccination of the public. A priority system can be followed, where the vaccine should be administered within 4 days of exposure to the virus or as a pre-exposure measure in high-risk groups. 

Key takeaways

  • Monkeypox is a Global health emergency.
  • The fatality rate is 3-6%.
  • It is quite same to smallpox (which has been eradicated) but less severe.
  • There is no particular monkeypox vaccine in the Indian market yet. 
  • It has been suggested that smallpox vaccines will be highly effectual against monkeypox.
  • As of now, there are 2 licensed vaccines in the US. 
  • the India is in talks with a small px vaccine manufacturer in Denmark. Should the require arise, India may procure smallpox vaccines from Denmark and possibly start manufacturing monkeypox vaccines (SII and Novavax).

Conclusion

Recently , the global outbreak can affect anyone who is exposed to the virus. Prolonged close contact with infected animals, humans or their belongings can aid in the expand of infection. As the recently obtainable vaccines are in limited supply, priority must be provided to vaccinating those who are at immediate risk. Self-limiting, monkeypox reasons fever, skin lesions and swollen lymph nodes. These infections often clear up in a some weeks without any medical intervention. Follow the safety measures to decrease your risk of exposure to the monkeypox virus.

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