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Friday, 12 August 2022

What is Soil and its types?

   What is Soil and its types?

Soil refers to the loose material or top portion of the mantle rock (regolith – a layer of unstructured, heterogeneous material overlying solid rock) that includes mainly of beautiful particles and humus and can sustain plant improvement. 

It is especially composed of mineral/rock particles, decomposed organic materials, soil water, soil air, and living organisms. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has categorized soils into 8 types in India. 

Laterite Soil

The name arrives from the Latin term “later,” i.e. “brick.”

It involves around 3.7 % of the country’s total land area.

These are typical monsoon soils, which are dignified by seasonal rainfall. Rain washes away lime and silica, leaving soil wealthy in aluminium and iron oxide, resulting in the creation of laterite soil.

Laterite soil is scattered in organic matter, phosphate, nitrogen, and calcium but plentiful in iron oxide and potash.

Forest Soil

This soil kind is prevalent in forested areas with adequate rainfall.

The structure of the soil is decided by the alpine environment in which it is situated.

Upper slope soils are shaggy -grained, whereas valley sides are loamy and silty.

These soils are acidic and have poor humus content in the snowed-in parts of the Himalayas. But the soils in the lower valleys are wealthy in nutrients.

Arid Soil

 It is even known as desert soil and accounts for more than 4.42 % of the country’s total land area.

The color spectrum runs from a red to brown.

Desert soils have a sandy to gravelly texture with low water content and water retention ability.

These soils are naturally saline; in some areas, the salt concentration is so high that common salt, i.e. NaCl, can be made by evaporating water.

These soils have sufficient phosphate levels but are nitrogen deficient.

Alkaline and saline Soil

These soils are infertile because of  high salt, magnesium, and potassium levels. The high salt concentration is because mostly to the arid environment and inadequate drainage.

The texture changes between sandy and loamy.

These soils can be discovered in dry and semi-arid locations and soggy and marshy places.

These soils are calcium and nitrogen defect .

These soils are firstly present in western Gujarat, eastern coast deltas, and Sundarban regions of West Bengal. The southwestern monsoon transports salt particles to the Rann of Kutch, which settle as a Encrustation . The salinity of the soil is even improved by seawater near deltas.

Peat and Marsh Soil

These soils are rife  in areas with considerable rainfall and significant humidity and promote strong plant development.

Peaty soils include a lot of humus and organic materials.

These soils are often thicker and dark in color. Moreover , these soils are alkaline in several locations.

These are discovered in northern Bihar, southern Uttarakhand, and along the coasts of West Bengal, Odisha, and Tamil Nadu.

Alluvial Soil:

Alluvial soils are discovered in abundance in the northern lowlands and river basins.

It accounts for almost 40% of the nation’s overall land area.

These soils are principally composed of rubble carried down from the Himalayas.

They are discovered in the Peninsular area on the east coast of deltas and river basins.

Their potash content is high, but their phosphorus content is less.

In the Ganga plains, 2 different kinds of alluvial soils have developed: Khadar and Bhangar.

Khadar is fresh alluvium that inhabits river flood basins. all year, Khadar is replenished with new silt deposits.

Bhangar is an old alluvium deposit deposited far from the flood basins.

Regur or Black Soil

“Regur Soil” and “Black Cotton Soil” are another names for black soil.

About 15% of the country’s total land area is covered by it.

It contains most of the Deccan Plateau, containing portions of Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. also  in the northwestern part of the Deccan Plateau, the black soil in the higher reaches of the Godavari and Krishna rivers is quite profound.

Generally, black soil is dark, clayey, and impermeable. As the rainy season approaches, it is necessary to remember that they expand considerably and become sticky when they become wet. The topsoil shrinks, forming large fractures while the dry season as the liquid dissipates.

Red and Yellow Soil

Around 18.5 % of the country’s entire land area is covered by it.

It is situated  in areas with little rainfall. Red loamy soil covers most of the Western Ghats’ piedmont zone. Moreover ally , sections of Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and the Middle Ganga Plain in the south include this soil.

Iron is a component in crystalline and metamorphic rocks, which responsible for the red color. When the soil is moistened, it takes on a yellow perspective .

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